Today In History - Thursday, June 30th

2009


Eugenio Duarte becomes first African to be elected as General Superintendent of the Church of the Nazarene.
2007


A car crashes into Glasgow International Airport in Scotland, believed to be a terrorist attack.
2005


Spain legalizes same-sex marriage.
2002


Brazil wins the FIFA World Cup for a record fifth time.
1997


The United Kingdom transfers sovereignty over Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China.
1992


Former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher joins the House of Lords as Baroness Thatcher of Kesteven.
1990


East Germany and West Germany merge their economies.
1988


French archbishop Marcel Lefebvre is excommunicated by the Roman Catholic Church.
1987


The Royal Canadian Mint introduces the $1 coin, known as the Loonie.
1986


The U.S. Supreme Court rules in Bowers v. Hardwick that states can outlaw homosexual acts between consenting adults.
1985


Thirty-nine American hostages from a hijacked TWA jetliner are freed in Beirut after being held for 17 days.
1977


Virginia Wade wins the Ladies Singles title at Wimbledon, the last British champion at the All England Club to date.
The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization disbands.
1972


The first leap second is added to the UTC time system.
1971


The crew of the Soviet Soyuz 11 spacecraft are killed when their air supply escapes through a faulty valve.
Ohio ratifies the 26th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, reducing the voting age to 18, thereby putting the amendment into effect.
1969


Nigeria bans Red Cross aid to Biafra.
1968


Pope Paul VI issues the Credo of the People of God.
1966


The National Organization for Women, the United States' largest feminist organization, is founded.
1963


Ciaculli massacre: a car bomb, intended for Mafia boss Salvatore Greco, kills seven police officers and military personnel near Palermo.
1960


Congo gains independence from Belgium.
1956


A TWA Super Constellation and a United Airlines DC-7 collide above the Grand Canyon in Arizona and crash, killing all 128 on board both airliners.
1953


The first Chevrolet Corvette rolls off the assembly line in Flint, Michigan.
1944


World War II: The Battle of Cherbourg ends with the fall of the strategically valuable port to American forces.
1941


World War II: Operation Barbarossa - Germany captures Lviv, Ukraine.
1937


First introduced in the London area on 30 June 1937, the UK's 999 number is the world's oldest emergency call telephone service. The system was introduced following a fire on 10 November 1935 in a house on Wimpole Street in which five women were killed. A neighbour had tried to telephone the fire brigade and was so outraged at being held in a queue by the Welbeck telephone exchange that he wrote a letter to the editor of The Times, which prompted a government inquiry.

The initial scheme covered a 12-mile radius around Oxford Circus and the public were advised only to use it in ongoing emergency if "for instance, the man in the flat next to yours is murdering his wife or you have seen a heavily masked cat burglar peering round the stack pipe of the local bank building.” The first arrest – for burglary – took place a week later and the scheme was extended to major cities after World War II and then to the whole UK in 1976.
1936


Emperor Haile Selassie of Abyssinia appeals for aid to the League of Nations against Italy's invasion of his country.
1935


The Senegalese Socialist Party holds its first congress.
1934


The Night of the Long Knives, Adolf Hitler secures his position in the Nazi party by a "blood purge," ridding the party of other leaders such as Ernst Roehm and Kurt von Schleicher.
1922


In Washington D.C., U.S. Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes and Dominican Ambassador Francisco J. Peynado sign the Hughes-Peynado agreement, which ends the United States occupation of the Dominican Republic.
1921


U.S. President Warren G. Harding appoints former President William Howard Taft Chief Justice of the United States.
1917


World War I: Greece declares war on the Central Powers.
1912


The Regina Cyclone hits Regina, Saskatchewan, killing 28. It remains Canada's deadliest tornado event.
1908


The Tunguska event occurs in remote Siberia.
1906


The United States Congress passes the Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act.
1905


Albert Einstein publishes the article On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, in which he introduces special relativity.
1892


The Homestead Strike begins near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
1886


The first transcontinental train trip across Canada departs from Montreal. It arrives in Port Moody, British Columbia on July 4.
1882


Charles J. Guiteau is hanged in Washington, D.C. for the assassination of U.S. President James Garfield.
1864


U.S. President Abraham Lincoln grants Yosemite Valley to California for "public use, resort and recreation".
1860


The 1860 Oxford evolution debate at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History takes place.
1859


French acrobat Charles Blondin crosses Niagara Falls on a tightrope.
1805


The U.S. Congress organizes the Michigan Territory.
1794


Native American forces under Blue Jacket attack Fort Recovery.
1775


1758


Seven Years' War: The Battle of Domstadtl takes place.
1688


The Immortal Seven issue the Invitation to William (continuing the English rebellion from Rome), which would culminate in the Glorious Revolution.
1651


The Deluge: Khmelnytsky Uprising - the Battle of Beresteczko ends with a Polish victory.
1559


King Henry II of France is mortally wounded in a jousting match against Gabriel de Montgomery.
1521


Spanish forces defeat a combined French and Navarrese army at the Battle of Noáin during the Spanish conquest of Iberian Navarre.
1520


The Spaniards are expelled from Tenochtitlan.
Spanish conquistadors led by Hernán Cortés fight their way out of Tenochtitlan.
1422


Battle of Arbedo between the duke of Milan and the Swiss cantons.
350


Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, is defeated and killed in Rome by troops of the usurper Magnentius.