Today In History - Sunday, July 5th


The Shard in London is inaugurated as the tallest building in Europe, with a height of 310 metres (1,020 ft).

A series of violent riots break out in Ürümqi, the capital city of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China.
The largest hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold ever discovered, consisting of more than 1,500 items, is found near the village of Hammerwich, near Lichfield, in Staffordshire, England.

Emergency United Nations Security Council meeting held at the U.N in New York City because of the North Korean missile tests a day before.
North Korea tests four short-range missiles, one medium-range missile and a long-range Taepodong-2. The long-range Taepodong-2 reportedly failed in mid-air over the Sea of Japan.

The first Indonesian presidential election is held.

SARS is declared to be contained by the WHO.

U.S. President Bill Clinton imposes trade and economic sanctions against the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.
Wolverhampton was hit by storms which included a twister. In Pendeford water was reaching depths of 5 feet in places. Just as families were recovering from the "twister" storms, a second storm hit on Sunday, August 1st.

Japan launches a probe to Mars, and thus joins the United States and Russia as a space exploring nation.

Dolly was a female domestic sheep, and the first animal to be cloned from an adult somatic cell, using the process of nuclear transfer. She was cloned by Ian Wilmut, Keith Campbell and colleagues at the Roslin Institute, part of the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, and the biotechnology company PPL Therapeutics, based near Edinburgh. The funding for Dolly's cloning was provided by PPL Therapeutics and the Ministry of Agriculture.[4] She was born on 5 July 1996 and died from a progressive lung disease 5 months before her seventh birthday.[1] She has been called "the world's most famous sheep" by sources including BBC News and Scientific American.

The cell used as the donor for the cloning of Dolly was taken from a mammary gland, and the production of a healthy clone therefore proved that a cell taken from a specific part of the body could recreate a whole individual. On Dolly's name, Wilmut stated "Dolly is derived from a mammary gland cell and we couldn't think of a more impressive pair of glands than Dolly Parton's".

Dolly was born on 5 July 1996 and had three mothers (one provided the egg, another the DNA and a third carried the cloned embryo to term). She was created using the technique of somatic cell nuclear transfer, where the cell nucleus from an adult cell is transferred into an unfertilized oocyte (developing egg cell) that has had its cell nucleus removed. The hybrid cell is then stimulated to divide by an electric shock, and when it develops into a blastocyst it is implanted in a surrogate mother. Dolly was the first clone produced from a cell taken from an adult mammal. The production of Dolly showed that genes in the nucleus of such a mature differentiated somatic cell are still capable of reverting to an embryonic totipotent state, creating a cell that can then go on to develop into any part of an animal.

The Republic of Armenia adopts its constitution, four years after its independence from the Soviet Union.

The United States announced it would refuse further unrestricted immigration from Haiti.

Iran-Contra affair: Oliver North is sentenced by U.S. District Judge Gerhard A. Gesell to a three-year suspended prison term, two years probation, $150,000 in fines and 1,200 hours community service. His convictions were later overturned.

First instance of the LTTE using suicide attacks on Sri Lankan Army. The Black Tigers are born and in the following years continue to use it to deadly effect.

Military coup in Pakistan: Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the first elected Prime Minister of Pakistan, is overthrown.

Arthur Ashe becomes the first black man to win the Wimbledon singles title.
Cape Verde gains its independence from Portugal.

Catastrophic BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion) in Kingman, Arizona, following a fire that broke out as propane was being transferred from a railroad car to a storage tank, kills 11 firefighters. This explosion has become a classic incident studied in fire department training programs worldwide.

Right to vote: The Twenty-sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution, lowering the voting age from 21 to 18 years, is formally certified by President Richard Nixon.

Air Canada Flight 621 crashes near Toronto International Airport killing 109 people.

Algeria becomes independent from France.

First ascent of Gasherbrum I, 11th highest peak on the earth.

The BBC broadcasts its first television news bulletin.
The Andhra Pradesh High Court was established.
Elvis Presley records his first single, "That's All Right," at Sun Records in Memphis, Tennessee.

William Shockley invents the junction transistor.

Zionism: The Knesset passes the Law of Return which grants all Jews the right to immigrate to Israel.
Korean War: Task Force Smith: American and North Korean forces first clash, in the Battle of Osan.

National Health Service Acts creates the national public health systems in the United Kingdom.

Larry Doby signs a contract with the Cleveland Indians baseball team, becoming the first black player in the American League. (Jackie Robinson had broken the color barrier with the Brooklyn Dodgers in the National League 11 weeks earlier.)

The bikini is introduced in Paris, France.
The bikini goes on sale after debuting during an outdoor fashion show at the Molitor Pool in Paris, France.

World War II: The liberation of the Philippines is declared.

The Battle of Kursk, the largest full-scale battle in history, included world largest tank battle at Prokhorovka village, July 12.
World War II: An Allied invasion fleet sails for Sicily (Operation Husky, July 10, 1943).
World War II: German forces begin a massive offensive against the Soviet Union at the Battle of Kursk, also known as Operation Citadel.

World War II: Operation Barbarossa: German troops reach the Dnieper River.

World War II: The United Kingdom and the Vichy France government break off diplomatic relations.

Spam, the luncheon meat, is introduced into the market by the Hormel Foods Corporation.
Highest recorded temperature in Canada, at Yellow Grass, Saskatchewan: 45°C (113°F).

The National Labor Relations Act, which governs labor relations in the United States, is signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

"Bloody Thursday" - Police open fire on striking longshoremen in San Francisco.

Germany takes possession of Cameroon.

The coat of arms of the Baku Governorate is established.

The Salvation Army is founded in the East End of London, England.

Admiral Charles Napier vanquishes the navy of the Portuguese usurper Dom Miguel at the third Battle of Cape St. Vincent.
Lê Văn Khôi along with 27 soldiers stage a mutiny taking over the Phiên An citadel, developing into the Lê Văn Khôi revolt against Emperor Minh Mạng.

France invades Algeria.

War of 1812: Battle of Chippawa - American Major General Jacob Brown defeats British General Phineas Riall at Chippawa, Ontario.

War of 1812: Three weeks of British raids on Fort Schlosser, Black Rock and Plattsburgh, New York commence.

Venezuela declares independence from Spain.

Battle of Wagram starts, the two-day battle was the largest yet of the Napoleonic Wars.

The convention of Artlenburg leads to the French occupation of Hanover (which had been ruled by the British king).

The Second Continental Congress adopts the Olive Branch Petition.

The Battle of Chesma between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire begins.

Isaac Newton publishes Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica.

John Guy sets sail from Bristol with 39 other colonists for Newfoundland.

Portuguese forces under the command of Pedro Lopes de Sousa begins an unsuccessful invasion of the Kingdom of Kandy during the Campaign of Danture in Sri Lanka.

The Burgundian and Majorcan claimants of the Principality of Achaea meet in the Battle of Manolada

Scotland and France form an alliance, the so-called "Auld Alliance", against England.

The official opening of Constantine's Bridge built over the Danube between Sucidava (Corabia, Romania) and Oescus (Gigen, Bulgaria) by the Roman architect Theophilus Patricius