Today In History - Tuesday, October 25th


The October 2009 Baghdad bombings kills 155 and wounds at least 721.

The first Airbus A380 passenger flight, operating for Singapore Airlines, with flight number SQ 380, flying scheduled service between Singapore and Sydney, Australia.

Fidel Castro, Cuba's President, announces that transactions using the American Dollar will be banned by November 8.
Cuban President Fidel Castro announces that transactions using the American Dollar will be banned.

After a brief civil war which has driven President Pascal Lissouba out of Brazzaville, Denis Sassou Nguesso proclaims himself the President of the Republic of the Congo.

A commuter train slams into a school bus in Fox River Grove, Illinois, killing seven students.

Jean Chrétien becomes Prime Minister of Canada with a massive majority for his Liberal Party in a general election in which the governing Progressive Conservatives, led by Kim Campbell, lost 149 of 151 seats in the parliament.

Lithuania holds a referendum on its first post-Soviet constitution.

History of Slovenia: Three months after the end of the Ten-Day War, the last soldier of the Yugoslav People's Army leaves the territory of the Republic of Slovenia.

Samuel Gordalina is born.

Operation Urgent Fury: The United States and its Caribbean allies invade Grenada, six days after Prime Minister Maurice Bishop and several of his supporters are executed in a coup d'état.

Proceedings on the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction conclude at The Hague.

Digital Equipment Corporation releases OpenVMS V1.0.

The ''Washington Post'' reports that White House Chief of Staff H.R. Haldeman was the fifth person to control a secret cash fund designed to finance illegal political sabotage and espionage during the 1972 presidential election campaign (see also Watergate scandal).

The United Nations seats the People's Republic of China and expels the Republic of China (see political status of Taiwan and China and the United Nations)

The wreck of Confederate submarine ''Hunley'' was found off Charleston, South Carolina, by pioneer underwater archaeologist, Dr. E. Lee Spence, then just 22 years old. ''Hunley'' was the first submarine to sink a ship in warfare.

Cuban missile crisis: Adlai Stevenson shows photos at the UN proving Soviet missiles are installed in Cuba
Cuban missile crisis: Adlai Stevenson shows photos at a meeting of the United Nations Security Council proving that Soviet missiles are installed in Cuba.
Uganda joins the United Nations.
Nelson Mandela is sentenced to five years in prison.

The Republic of China takes over administration of Taiwan following Japan's surrender to the Allies.

Heinrich Himmler orders a crackdown on the Edelweiss Pirates, a loosely organized youth culture in Nazi Germany that had assisted army deserters and others to hide from the Third Reich.
The USS Tang under Richard O'Kane (the top American submarine captain of World War II) is sunk by the ship's own malfunctioning torpedo.
The Romanian Army liberates Carei, the last Romanian city under Axis Powers' occupation.
Battle of Leyte Gulf, the largest naval battle in history, takes place in and around the Philippines between the Imperial Japanese Navy and the U.S. Third and U.S. Seventh Fleets.
The Romanian city of Carei is liberated by Romanian and Soviet forces from Nazi-Hungarian occupation.
World War II: Battle of Leyte Gulf — the largest naval battle in history, takes place in and around the Philippines between the Imperial Japanese Navy and the U.S. Third and U.S. Seventh Fleets. Afterward is the first Kamikaze attack of the war.

Benjamin O. Davis, Sr. is named the first African American general in the United States Army.

The Archbishop of Dubuque, Francis J. L. Beckman, denounces swing music as "a degenerated musical system… turned loose to gnaw away at the moral fiber of young people", warning that it leads down a "primrose path to hell". His warning is widely ignored.

Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini create the Rome-Berlin Axis.

Hurricane floods Haiti, killing over 2,000 people.

The Italian luxury liner SS Principessa Mafalda sinks off the coast of Brazil, killing 314.

The forged Zinoviev Letter is published in the ''Daily Mail'', wrecking the British Labour Party's hopes of re-election.
The Zinoviev letter, which Zinoviev himself denied writing, is published in the Daily Mail. The Labour party would later blame this letter for the Conservatives' landslide election win.

After 74 days on hunger strike in Brixton Prison, England, the Sinn Féin Lord Mayor of Cork, Terence MacSwiney dies.

Traditionally understood date of the October Revolution, involving the capture of the Winter Palace, Petrograd, Russia.
The October Revolution, officially known as the Great October Socialist Revolution, and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising or the Bolshevik Revolution, was a seizure of state power instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917. It took place with an armed insurrection in Petrograd traditionally dated to 25 October 1917 (by the Julian or Old Style calendar, which corresponds to 7 November 1917 in the Gregorian or New Style calendar).

It followed and capitalized on the February Revolution of the same year, which overthrew the Tsarist autocracy and established a provisional government composed predominantly of former nobles and aristocrats. During this time, urban workers began to organize into councils (Russian: Soviet) wherein revolutionaries criticized the provisional government and its actions. The October Revolution in Petrograd overthrew the provisional government and gave the power to the local soviets. The Bolshevik party was heavily supported by the soviets. After the Congress of Soviets, now the governing body, had its second session, it elected members of the Bolsheviks and other leftist groups such as the Left Socialist Revolutionaries to key positions within the new state of affairs. This immediately initiated the establishment of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, the world's first self-proclaimed socialist state.

The revolution was led by the Bolsheviks, who used their influence in the Petrograd Soviet to organize the armed forces. Bolshevik Red Guards forces under the Military Revolutionary Committee began the takeover of government buildings on 24 October 1917 (O.S.). The following day, the Winter Palace (the seat of the Provisional government located in Petrograd, then capital of Russia), was captured.

As the revolution was not universally recognized, there followed the struggles of the Russian Civil War (1917–1922) and the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922.

The United Kingdom annexes the Transvaal.

The Toronto Stock Exchange is created.

The Battle of Balaclava during the Crimean War (Charge of the Light Brigade).

St Katharine Docks open in London.

Greek War of Independence: The First Siege of Missolonghi begins.

War of 1812: Canadians and Mohawks defeat the Americans in the Battle of Chateauguay.

War of 1812: The American frigate, USS United States, commanded by Stephen Decatur, captures the British frigate HMS Macedonian.


British fleet under Admiral Sir Edward Hawke defeats the French at the Second Battle of Cape Finisterre.

Dutch sea-captain Dirk Hartog makes second recorded landfall by a European on Australian soil, at the later-named Dirk Hartog Island off the West Australian coast.

The army of Henry V of England defeats the French at the Battle of Agincourt.

Adam Banastre, Henry de Lea and William Bradshaw, led an attack on Liverpool Castle.

Henry II becomes King of England.

The Portuguese, under Afonso I, and Crusaders from England and Flanders conquer Lisbon after a four-month siege.
Seljuk Turks completely annihilate German crusaders under Conrad III at the Battle of Dorylaeum.

Emperor Leo I acclaims his grandson Leo II as Caesar of the Byzantine Empire.