Today In History - Saturday, May 28th

2012


The discovery of Flame, a complex malware program targeting computers in Middle Eastern countries, is announced.
2011


Malta votes on the introduction of divorce.
2010


In West Bengal, India, a train derailment and subsequent collision kills 141 passengers.
2008


The first meeting of the Constituent Assembly of Nepal formally declares Nepal a republic, ending the 240-year reign of the Shah dynasty.
2004


The Iraqi Governing Council chooses Ayad Allawi, a longtime anti-Saddam Hussein exile, as prime minister of Iraq's interim government.
2003


Peter Hollingworth becomes the first Governor-General of Australia to resign his office as a result of criticism of his conduct.
2002


NATO declares Russia a limited partner in the Western alliance.
The Mars Odyssey finds signs of large ice deposits on the planet Mars.
The last steel girder is removed from the original World Trade Center site. Cleanup duties officially end with closing ceremonies at Ground Zero in Manhattan, New York City.
1999


In Milan, Italy, after 22 years of restoration work, Leonardo da Vinci's masterpiece The Last Supper is put back on display.
Two Swedish police officers are murdered with their own fire arms by the bank robbers Jackie Arklöv and Tony Olsson after a dramatic car chase.
1998


Nuclear testing: Pakistan responds to a series of nuclear tests by India with five of its own codenamed Chagai-I, prompting the United States, Japan, and other nations to impose economic sanctions. Pakistan celebrates Youm-e-Takbir annually.
1996


U.S. President Bill Clinton's former business partners in the Whitewater land deal, Jim McDougal and Susan McDougal, and the Governor of Arkansas Jim Guy Tucker, are convicted of fraud.
1995


The Russian town of Neftegorsk is hit by a 7.6 magnitude earthquake that kills at least 2,000 people, half of the total population.
1993


Eritrea and Monaco join the United Nations.
1991


The capital city of Addis Ababa falls to the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front, ending both the Derg regime in Ethiopia and the Ethiopian Civil War.
1987


19-year-old West German pilot Mathias Rust evades Soviet Union air defenses and lands a private plane in the Red Square in Moscow, Russia. He is immediately detained and will not be released until August 3, 1988.
A robot probe finds the wreckage of the USS ''Monitor'' near Cape Hatteras, North Carolina.
1982


Falklands War: British forces defeat the Argentines at the Battle of Goose Green.
1979


Constantine Karamanlis signs the full treaty of the accession of Greece with the European Economic Community.
1978


Second round of the presidential elections in Upper Volta. The election is won by incumbent Sangoulé Lamizana.
1977


In Southgate, Kentucky, the Beverly Hills Supper Club is engulfed in fire, killing 165 people inside.
1975


Fifteen West African countries sign the Treaty of Lagos, creating the Economic Community of West African States.
1974


Northern Ireland's power-sharing Sunningdale Agreement collapses following a general strike by loyalists.
1970


The formerly united Free University of Brussels officially splits into two separate entities, the French-speaking Université Libre de Bruxelles and the Dutch-speaking Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
1964


The Palestine Liberation Organization is formed.
1961


Peter Benenson's article "The Forgotten Prisoners" is published in several internationally read newspapers. This will later be thought of as the founding of the human rights organization Amnesty International.
1958


Cuban Revolution: Fidel Castro's 26th of July Movement, heavily reinforced by Frank Pais Militia, overwhelm an army post in El Uvero.
1955


Henry Bolte becomes Premier of the state of Victoria.
1952


Memphis Kiddie Park opens in Brooklyn, Ohio. The park's Little Dipper roller coaster would become the oldest operating steel roller coaster in North America.
The women of Greece are given the right to vote.
1951


The British radio comedy program The Goon Show was broadcast on the BBC for the first time.
1942


World War II: in retaliation for the assassination of Reinhard Heydrich, Nazis in Czechoslovakia kill over 1800 people.
1940


World War II: Norwegian, French, Polish and British forces recapture Narvik. This is the first allied infantry victory of World War II.
World War II: Belgium surrenders to Nazi Germany to end the Battle of Belgium.
1938


Alcatraz Excape Attempt #3

While at work in the woodworking shop in the model industries building, James Limerick, Jimmy Lucas, and Rufus Franklin attacked unarmed correctional officer Royal Cline with a hammer (Cline died from his injuries). The three then climbed to the roof in an attempt to disarm the correctional officer in the roof tower. The officer, Harold Stites, shot Limerick and Franklin. Limerick died from his injuries. Lucas and Franklin received life sentences for Cline's murder.
1937


The Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, California, is officially opened by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in Washington, D.C., who pushes a button signaling the start of vehicle traffic over the span.
Neville Chamberlain becomes British Prime Minister.
Volkswagen (VW), the German automobile manufacturer is founded.
1936


Alan Turing submits On Computable Numbers for publication.
Klaipėda Radio Station begins regular broadcasting.
1934


Near Callander, Ontario, Canada, the Dionne quintuplets are born to Oliva and Elzire Dionne; they will be the first quintuplets to survive infancy.
The Glyndebourne festival in England is inaugurated.
1932


In the Netherlands, construction of the Afsluitdijk is completed and the Zuiderzee bay is converted to the freshwater IJsselmeer.
1930


The Chrysler Building in New York City officially opens.
1926


28 May 1926 coup d'état: Ditadura Nacional is established in Portugal to suppress the unrest of the First Republic.
1918


The Democratic Republic of Armenia declares its independence.
The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic and the First Republic of Armenia declare their independence.
1907


The first Isle of Man TT race was held.
1905


Russo-Japanese War: The Battle of Tsushima ends with the destruction of the Russian Baltic Fleet by Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō and the Imperial Japanese Navy.
1900


Gare d'Orsay railway station is inaugurated in Paris.
1892


The Sierra Club is an environmental organization in the United States. It was founded on May 28, 1892, in San Francisco, California, by the Scottish-born American conservationist and preservationist John Muir, who became its first president.

Traditionally associated with the progressive movement, the club was one of the first large-scale environmental preservation organizations in the world, and currently engages in lobbying politicians to promote green policies. In recent years, the club has gravitated toward green politics and especially toward bright green environmentalism. Recent focuses of the club include green energy and preventing climate change, although traditional concerns such as the preservation of public lands and mitigating pollution remain policy priorities.

In addition to political advocacy, the Sierra Club organizes many outdoor recreation activities, and is a notable organization for mountaineering and rock climbing in the United States, having pioneered the Yosemite Decimal System of climbing. The Sierra Club does not set standards for or regulate alpinism, but it frequently organizes wilderness courses, hikes, rock climbs, and alpine expeditions for members.

The Sierra Club has hundreds of thousands of members in chapters located throughout the United States. It is affiliated with Sierra Club Canada.
1871


Fall of the Paris Commune.
1863


American Civil War: the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, the first African American regiment, leaves Boston, Massachusetts, to fight for the Union.
1830


President Andrew Jackson signs The Indian Removal Act which relocates Native Americans.
1774


American Revolutionary War: the first Continental Congress convenes.
1754


French and Indian War: in the first engagement of the war, Virginia militia under the 22-year-old Lieutenant colonel George Washington defeat a French reconnaissance party in the Battle of Jumonville Glen in what is now Fayette County in southwestern Pennsylvania.
1644


Bolton Massacre by Royalist troops under the command of James Stanley, 7th Earl of Derby.
1588


The Spanish Armada was a Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from A Coruña in August 1588, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia with the purpose of escorting an army from Flanders to invade England. The strategic aim was to overthrow Queen Elizabeth I of England and the Tudor establishment of Protestantism in England, with the expectation that this would put a stop to English interference in the Spanish Netherlands and to the harm caused to Spanish interests by English and Dutch privateering.

The Armada chose not to attack the English fleet at Plymouth, then failed to establish a temporary anchorage in the Solent, after one Spanish ship had been captured by Francis Drake in the English Channel, and finally dropped anchor off Calais. While awaiting communications from the Duke of Parma's army the Armada was scattered by an English fireship attack. In the ensuing Battle of Gravelines the Spanish fleet was damaged and forced to abandon its rendezvous with Parma's army, who were blockaded in harbour by Dutch flyboats. The Armada managed to regroup and, driven by southwest winds, withdrew north, with the English fleet harrying it up the east coast of England. The commander ordered a return to Spain, but the Armada was disrupted during severe storms in the North Atlantic and a large portion of the vessels were wrecked on the coasts of Scotland and Ireland. Of the initial 130 ships over a third failed to return. As Martin and Parker explain, "Philip II attempted to invade England, but his plans miscarried, partly because of his own mismanagement, and partly because the defensive efforts of the English and their Dutch allies prevailed."
1533


The Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer declares the marriage of King Henry VIII of England to Anne Boleyn valid.
1503


James IV of Scotland and Margaret Tudor are married according to a papal bull by Pope Alexander VI. A Treaty of Everlasting Peace between Scotland and England signed on that occasion results in a peace that lasts ten years.
621


Battle of Hulao: Li Shimin, the son of the Chinese emperor Gao Zu, defeats the numerically superior forces of Dou Jiande near the Hulao Pass (Henan). This victory decides the outcome of the civil war that followed the Sui Dynasty's collapse in favour of the Tang Dynasty.
585 BC


A solar eclipse occurs, as predicted by the Greek philosopher and scientist Thales, while Alyattes is battling Cyaxares in the Battle of Halys, leading to a truce. This is one of the cardinal dates from which other dates can be calculated.