Today In History - Tuesday, October 21st

2003


Images of the dwarf planet Eris are taken and subsequently used in its discovery by the team of Michael E. Brown, Chad Trujillo, and David L. Rabinowitz.
1995


Dayton Agreement The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
1994


North Korea nuclear weapons program: North Korea and the United States sign an agreement that requires North Korea to stop its nuclear weapons program and agree to inspections.
In Seoul, 32 people are killed when the Seongsu Bridge collapses.
1990


The first Apple Day, is held in Covent Garden, London.
1987


Jaffna hospital massacre was carried out by Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka killing 70 ethnic Tamil patients, Doctors & Nurses.
1986


In Lebanon, pro-Iranian kidnappers claim to have abducted American writer Edward Tracy (he was released in August 1991).
1983


The metre is defined at the seventeenth General Conference on Weights and Measures in terms of the speed of light as the distance light travels in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second.
1979


Moshe Dayan resigns from the Israeli government because of strong disagreements with Prime Minister Menachem Begin over policy towards the Arabs.
1978


Australian civilian pilot Frederick Valentich vanishes in a Cessna 182 over the Bass Strait south of Melbourne, after reporting contact with an unidentified aircraft.
1977


The European Patent Institute is founded.
1973


John Paul Getty III's ear is cut off by his kidnappers and sent to a newspaper in Rome; it doesn't arrive until November 8.
Fred Dryer of the then Los Angeles Rams becomes the first player in NFL history to score two safeties in the same game.
1971


Pablo Neruda wins Nobel Prize for Literature.
1969


A coup d'état in Somalia brings Siad Barre to power.
1967


Vietnam War: More than 100,000 war protesters gather in Washington, DC. A peaceful rally at the Lincoln Memorial is followed by a march to The Pentagon and clashes with soldiers and United States Marshals protecting the facility (event lasts until October 23; 683 people were arrested). Similar demonstrations occurred simultaneously in Japan and Western Europe.
1966


Aberfan disaster: A coal tip falls on the village of Aberfan in Wales, killing 144 people, mostly schoolchildren.
1965


Comet Ikeya-Seki approaches perihelion, passing 450,000 kilometers from the sun.
1959


In New York City, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum opens to the public. It was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright.
US President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs an executive order transferring Wernher von Braun and other German scientists from the United States Army to NASA.
1945


Women's suffrage: Women are allowed to vote in France for the first time.
Argentine military officer and politician Juan Perón married actress Evita.
1944


The first kamikaze attack: HMAS ''Australia'' was hit by a Japanese plane carrying a 200 kg (441 pound) bomb off Leyte Island, as the Battle of Leyte Gulf began.
1921


President Warren G. Harding delivers the first speech by a sitting President against lynching in the deep south. George Melford's silent film, ''The Sheik'', staring Rudolph Valentino, premiers.
1912


During the First Balkan War, Kardzhali was liberated by Bulgarian forces
1902


In the United States, a five month strike by United Mine Workers ends.
1895


The Republic of Formosa collapses as Japanese forces invade.
1892


Opening ceremonies for the World's Columbian Exposition were held in Chicago, though because construction was behind schedule, the exposition did not open until May 1, 1893.
1879


Using a filament of carbonized thread, Thomas Edison tests the first practical electric incandescent light bulb (it lasted 13½ hours before burning out).
1867


Manifest Destiny: Medicine Lodge Treaty - Near Medicine Lodge, Kansas a landmark treaty is signed by southern Great Plains Indian leaders. The treaty requires Native American Plains tribes to relocate a reservation in western Oklahoma.
1861


American Civil War: Battle of Ball's Bluff - Union forces under Colonel Edward Baker are defeated by Confederate troops in the second major battle of the war. Baker, a close friend of Abraham Lincoln, is killed in the fighting.
1854


Florence Nightingale and a staff of 38 nurses were sent to the Crimean War.
1824


Joseph Aspdin patents Portland cement.
1816


The Penang Free School is founded in George Town, Penang, Malaysia, by the Rev Hutchings. It is the oldest English-language school in Southeast Asia.
1805


Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Trafalgar: A British fleet led by Admiral Lord Nelson defeats a combined French and Spanish fleet off the coast of Spain under Admiral Villeneuve. It signalled the virtual end of French maritime power and left Britain navally unchallenged until the twentieth century.
Napoleonic Wars: Austrian General Mack surrenders his army to the Grand Army of Napoleon at Ulm, reaping Napoleon over 30,000 prisoners and inflicting 10,000 casualties on the losers. Ulm was considered to be one of Napoleon's finest hours.
1797


In Boston Harbor, the 44-gun United States Navy frigate USS ''Constitution'' is launched.
1774


First display of the word "Liberty" on a flag, raised by colonists in Taunton, Massachusetts and which was in defiance of British rule in Colonial America.
1600


Tokugawa Ieyasu defeats the leaders of rival Japanese clans in the Battle of Sekigahara, which marks the beginning of the Tokugawa shogunate, who in effect rule Japan until the mid-nineteenth century.
1520


Ferdinand Magellan discovers a strait now known as Strait of Magellan.
1512


Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg.
1096


Turkish army annihilates the People's Army of the West, part of the First Crusade.