Today In History - Tuesday, August 30th


While being towed across the Barents Sea, the de-commissioned Russian submarine K-159 sinks, taking nine of her crew and 800 kg of spent nuclear fuel with her.

East Timorese vote for independence in a referendum.

Second Congo War: Armed forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and their Angolan and Zimbabwean allies recapture Matadi and the Inga dams in the western DRC from RCD and Rwandan troops.

Bosnian War: NATO launches Operation Deliberate Force against Bosnian Serb forces.

Tatarstan declares independence from the RSFSR.

STS-41-D: The Space Shuttle Discovery takes off on its maiden voyage.

President Mohammad-Ali Rajai and Prime Minister Mohammad-Javad Bahonar of Iran are assassinated in a bombing committed by the People's Mujahedin of Iran.

A Belgrade-Dortmund express train derails at the main train station in Zagreb killing 153 passengers.
A powerful bomb explodes at the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries headquarters in Marunouchi, Tokyo, Japan. Eight are killed, 378 are injured. Eight left-wing activists are arrested on May 19, 1975 by Japanese authorities.

Thurgood Marshall is confirmed as the first African American Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

Hotline between U.S. and Soviet leaders goes into operation.

Japan conducts a test of the NAMC YS-11, its first aircraft since World War II and its only successful commercial aircraft from before or after the war.

The Lake Pontchartrain Causeway opens.

Hong Kong is liberated from Japan by British Armed Forces.
The Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces, General Douglas MacArthur lands at Atsugi Air Force Base.
The Allied Control Council, governing Germany after World War II, comes into being.
The August Revolution ends as Emperor Bảo Đại abdicates, ending the Nguyễn dynasty.

World War II: The Battle of Alam el Halfa begins.

World War II: Siege of Leningrad begins.

The Second Vienna Award reassigns the territory of Northern Transylvania from Romania to Hungary.

Battle of Dumlupınar: The final battle in the Greco-Turkish War ("Turkish War of Independence").

On 30 August 1918, Lenin spoke at the Hammer and Sickle, a factory in Moscow. As Lenin left the building and before he entered his car, Kaplan called out to him. When Lenin turned towards her, she fired three shots with a Browning pistol. One bullet passed through Lenin's coat, the other two struck him: one passing through his neck, puncturing part of his left lung, and stopping near his right collarbone; the other lodging in his left shoulder.

Lenin was taken back to his living quarters at the Kremlin. He feared there might be other plotters planning to kill him and refused to leave the security of the Kremlin to seek medical attention. Doctors were brought in to treat him but were unable to remove the bullets outside of a hospital. Despite the severity of his injuries, Lenin survived. However, Lenin's health never fully recovered from the attack.

Kaplan was taken into custody and interrogated by the Cheka. She made the following statement:

“My name is Fanya Kaplan. Today I shot Lenin. I did it on my own. I will not say from whom I obtained my revolver. I will give no details. I had resolved to kill Lenin long ago. I consider him a traitor to the Revolution. I was exiled to Akatui for participating in an assassination attempt against a Tsarist official in Kiev. I spent 11 years at hard labour. After the Revolution, I was freed. I favoured the Constituent Assembly and am still for it.”

When it became clear that Kaplan would not implicate any accomplices, she was executed on September 3, 1918 with a bullet to the back of the head.

Vietnamese prison guards led by Trịnh Văn Cấn mutiny at the Thái Nguyên penitentiary against local French authority.

World War I: Germans defeat the Russians in the Battle of Tannenberg

Burgess Shale fossils are discovered by Charles Doolittle Walcott.

The town of Ambiky is captured by France from Menabe in Madagascar.

Philippine Revolution: After Spanish victory in the Battle of San Juan del Monte, eight provinces in the Philippines are declared under martial law by the Spanish Governor-General Ramón Blanco y Erenas.

Austrian explorers Julius von Payer and Karl Weyprecht discover the archipelago of Franz Josef Land in the Arctic Sea.

American Civil War: Battle of Richmond: Confederates under Edmund Kirby Smith rout Union forces under General Horatio Wright.
American Civil War: Union forces are defeated in Second Battle of Bull Run.

The city of Houston is founded by Augustus Chapman Allen and John Kirby Allen


First Battle of Kulm: French forces are defeated by an Austrian-Prussian-Russian alliance.
Creek War: Fort Mims massacre: Creek "Red Sticks" kill over 500 settlers (including over 250 armed militia) in Fort Mims, north of Mobile, Alabama.

Gabriel Prosser leads a slave rebellion in Richmond, Virginia

The entire Dutch fleet is captured by British forces under the command of Sir Ralph Abercromby and Admiral Sir Charles Mitchell during the War of the Second Coalition.

HMS Pandora sinks after having run aground on a reef the previous day.

Tokugawa Ieyasu enters Edo Castle. (Traditional Japanese date: August 1, 1590)

Guru Ram Das becomes the Fourth Sikh Guru/Master.

Pope Paul II succeeds Pope Pius II as the 211th pope.

Beginning date of the Battle of Lake Poyang; the forces of two Chinese rebel leaders — Chen Youliang and Zhu Yuanzhang — are pitted against each other in what is one of the largest naval battles in history, during the last decade of the ailing, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

Peter III of Aragon, originally traveling with his fleet on a military expedition against the Hafsid Kingdom, ends up in the Sicilian town of Trapani, after he was asked by the inhabitants of Palermo to help in the fight against Charles of Anjou.

King Theoderic the Great dies of dysentery at Ravenna; his daughter Amalasuntha takes power as regent for her 10-year old son Athalaric.
30 BC

Cleopatra VII, Queen of Egypt, committed suicide.