Today In History - Saturday, April 30th

2014


A bomb blast in Ürümqi kills 3 people and injures 79 others.
2013


Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands abdicates and Willem-Alexander becomes King of the Netherlands.
2012


An overloaded ferry capsizes on the Brahmaputra River in India killing at least 103 people.
2009


Chrysler files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.
Seven people are killed and 17 injured at a Queen's Day parade in Apeldoorn, Netherlands in an attempted assassination on Queen Beatrix.
Azerbaijan State Oil Academy shooting: Twelve people were killed (students and staff members) by an armed attacker.
2008


Two skeletal remains found near Yekaterinburg, Russia, are confirmed by Russian scientists to be the remains of Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia and Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna, one of his sisters.
2004


U.S. media release graphic photos of American soldiers abusing and sexually humiliating Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison.
2002


A referendum in Pakistan overwhelmingly approves the Presidency of Pervez Musharraf for another five years.
2001


The Mitchell Report on the Arab-Israeli conflict is published.
1999


Cambodia joins the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) bringing the total members to 10.
1995


U.S. President Bill Clinton became the first President to visit Northern Ireland.
1994


Formula One racing driver Roland Ratzenberger is killed in a crash during the qualifying session of the San Marino Grand Prix run at Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari outside Imola, Italy.
1993


Virgin Radio broadcasts for the first time in the United Kingdom.
The World Wide Web (WWW, W3) is an information system of interlinked hypertext documents that are accessed via the Internet. It has also commonly become known simply as the Web. Individual document pages on the World Wide Web are called web pages and are accessed with a software application running on the user's computer, commonly called a web browser. Web pages may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia components, as well as web navigation features consisting of hyperlinks.

Tim Berners-Lee, a British computer scientist and former CERN employee, is considered the inventor of the Web. On 12 March 1989, Berners-Lee wrote a proposal for what would eventually become the World Wide Web. The 1989 proposal was meant for a more effective CERN communication system but Berners-Lee eventually realised the concept could be implemented throughout the world. Berners-Lee and Belgian computer scientist Robert Cailliau proposed in 1990 to use hypertext "to link and access information of various kinds as a web of nodes in which the user can browse at will", and Berners-Lee finished the first website in December of that year. The first test was completed around 20 December 1990 and Berners-Lee reported about the project on the newsgroup alt.hypertext on 7 August 1991.

The World Wide Web had a number of differences from other hypertext systems available at the time. The Web required only unidirectional links rather than bidirectional ones, making it possible for someone to link to another resource without action by the owner of that resource. It also significantly reduced the difficulty of implementing web servers and browsers (in comparison to earlier systems), but in turn presented the chronic problem of link rot. Unlike predecessors such as HyperCard, the World Wide Web was non-proprietary, making it possible to develop servers and clients independently and to add extensions without licensing restrictions. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to anyone, with no fees due. Coming two months after the announcement that the server implementation of the Gopher protocol was no longer free to use, this produced a rapid shift away from Gopher and towards the Web. An early popular web browser was ViolaWWW for Unix and the X Windowing System.
Monica Seles is stabbed by Günter Parche, an obsessed fan, during a quarterfinal match of the 1993 Citizen Cup in Hamburg, Germany
1988


Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II officially opens World Expo '88, Brisbane, Australia.
1982


The Bijon Setu massacre occurs in Calcutta.
1980


The Iranian Embassy siege begins in London.
1975


The Fall of Saigon was the capture of Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, by the People’s Army of Vietnam and the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (also known as the Việt Cộng) on April 30, 1975. The event marked the end of the Vietnam War and the start of a transition period leading to the formal reunification of Vietnam into a socialist republic, governed by the Communist Party of Vietnam.

North Vietnamese forces, under the command of the General Văn Tiến Dũng, began their final ground attack on Saigon—opposed by South Vietnamese forces commanded by General Nguyễn Văn Toàn—on April 29.

By the afternoon of the next day, North Vietnamese troops had occupied the important points of the city and raised their flag over the South Vietnamese presidential palace. The South Vietnamese government capitulated shortly afterward. The city was renamed Hồ Chí Minh City, after the Democratic Republic's President Hồ Chí Minh.

The fall of the city was preceded by the evacuation of almost all the American civilian and military personnel in Saigon, along with tens of thousands of South Vietnamese civilians associated with the southern regime. The evacuation culminated in Operation Frequent Wind, the largest helicopter evacuation in history. In addition to the flight of refugees, the end of the war and institution of new rules by the communists contributed to a decline in the city’s population.
1973


Watergate scandal: U.S. President Richard Nixon announces that top White House aides H. R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichman and others have resigned.
1967


The Aldene Connection opened in Roselle Park, NJ, shutting down the CNJ's Jersey City waterfront terminal and transferring commuters to Newark Penn Station.
1966


The Church of Satan is established at the Black House in San Francisco.
1963


The Bristol Bus Boycott is held in Bristol to protest the Bristol Omnibus Company's refusal to employ Black or Asian bus crews, drawing national attention to racial discrimination in the United Kingdom.
1961


K-19, the first Soviet nuclear submarine equipped with nuclear missiles, is commissioned.
1956


Former Vice President and Senator Alben Barkley dies during a speech in Virginia. He collapses after proclaiming "I would rather be a servant in the house of the lord than sit in the seats of the mighty."
1953


In Warner Robins, Georgia, an F4 tornado kills 18 people.
1948


In Bogotá, Colombia, the Organization of American States is established.
1947


In Nevada, the Boulder Dam is renamed the Hoover Dam a second time.
1945


World War II: Führerbunker: Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun commit suicide after being married for one day. Soviet soldiers raise the Victory Banner over the Reichstag building.
1943


World War II: Operation Mincemeat: The submarine HMS Seraph surfaces in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Spain to deposit a dead man planted with false invasion plans and dressed as a British military intelligence officer.
1939


NBC inaugurates its regularly scheduled television service in New York City, broadcasting President Franklin D. Roosevelt's N.Y. World's Fair opening day ceremonial address.
The 1939-40 New York World's Fair opens.
1938


The animated cartoon short Porky's Hare Hunt debuts in movie theaters, introducing Happy Rabbit (a prototype of Bugs Bunny).
The first televised FA Cup Final takes place between Huddersfield Town and Preston North End.
1937


The Philippines holds a plebiscite for Filipino women on whether they should be extended the right to suffrage; over 90% would vote in the affirmative.
1927


The Federal Industrial Institute for Women opens in Alderson, West Virginia, as the first women's federal prison in the United States.
Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford become the first celebrities to leave their footprints in concrete at Grauman's Chinese Theater in Hollywood.
Explosion killed 97 coal miners in the everettville No. 3 mine in Monogalia County, West Virginia.
1925


Automaker Dodge Brothers, Inc is sold to Dillon, Read & Co. for US$146 million plus $50 million for charity.
1920


Peru becomes a signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty.
1907


Honolulu, Hawaii becomes an independent city.
1904


The Louisiana Purchase Exposition World's Fair opens in St. Louis, Missouri.
1900


Hawaii becomes a territory of the United States, with Sanford B. Dole as governor.
Casey Jones dies in a train wreck in Vaughan, Mississippi, while trying to make up time on the Cannonball Express.
1894


Coxey's Army reaches Washington, D.C. to protest the unemployment caused by the Panic of 1893.
1885


Governor of New York David B. Hill signs legislation creating the Niagara Reservation, New York's first state park, ensuring that Niagara Falls will not be devoted solely to industrial and commercial use.
1871


The Camp Grant massacre takes place in Arizona Territory.
1863


Mexican forces attacked the French Foreign Legion in Hacienda Camarón, Mexico.
A 65-man French Foreign Legion infantry patrol fights a force of nearly 2,000 Mexican soldiers to nearly the last man in Hacienda Camarón, Mexico.
1838


Nicaragua declares independence from the Central American Federation.
1812


The Territory of Orleans becomes the 18th U.S. state under the name Louisiana.
1803


Louisiana Purchase: The United States purchases the Louisiana Territory from France for $15 million, more than doubling the size of the young nation.
1794


The Battle of Boulou is fought, in which French forces defeated the Spanish under General Union.
1789


On the balcony of Federal Hall on Wall Street in New York City, George Washington takes the oath of office to become the first elected President of the United States.
1774


Yellow Creek massacre, British settlers (soon to be American settlers) massacre family members of Chief Logan and spark off the conflict known as Lord Dunmore's War
1671


Petar Zrinski, the Croatian Ban from the Zrinski family, is executed.
1636


Eighty Years' War: Dutch Republic forces recapture a strategically important fort from Spain after a nine-month siege.
1598


Juan de Oñate makes a formal declaration of his Conquest of New Mexico.
1557


Mapuche leader Lautaro is killed by Spanish forces at the Battle of Mataquito in Chile.
1513


Edmund de la Pole, Yorkist pretender to the English throne, is executed on the orders of Henry VIII.
1492


Spain gives Christopher Columbus his commission of exploration.
1315


Enguerrand de Marigny is hanged on the public gallows at Montfaucon.
1006


Supernova SN 1006, the brightest supernova in recorded history, appears in the constellation Lupus.
642


Chindasuinth is proclaimed king by the Visigothic nobility and bishops.
313


Roman emperor Licinius unifies the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule.
Battle of Tzirallum: Emperor Licinius defeats Maximinus II and unifies the Eastern Roman Empire.
311


The Diocletianic Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire ends.