Today In History - Wednesday, September 28th

2012


Somali and African Union forces launch a coordinated assault on the Somali port city of Kismayo to take back the city from al-Shabaab militants.
A Dornier Do 228 light aircraft crashes on the outskirts of the Nepalese capital of Kathmandu, killing 19 people.
2009


The military junta leading Guinea, headed by Captain Moussa Dadis Camara, raped, killed, and wounded protesters during a protest rally in a stadium called Stade du 28 Septembre.
2008


SpaceX launches the first private spacecraft, the Falcon 1 into orbit.
2006


Suvarnabhumi Airport opens in Amphoe Bang Phli, Samut Prakan Province from Don Mueang International Airport after the older airport ceased international commercial flights.
2000


Al-Aqsa Intifada: Ariel Sharon visits the Temple Mount in Jerusalem.
Al-Aqsa Intifada: Ariel Sharon visits Al-Aqsa Mosque known to Jews as the Temple Mount in Jerusalem.
1996


Former president of Afghanistan Mohammad Najibullah is tortured and brutally murdered by the Taliban.
1995


Bob Denard and a group of mercenaries take the islands of Comoros in a coup.
Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat sign the Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.
1994


The cruise ferry MS Estonia sinks in Baltic Sea, killing 852 people.
1975


The Spaghetti House siege, in which nine people are taken hostage, takes place in London.
1973


The ITT Building in New York City is bombed in protest at ITT's alleged involvement in the September 11, 1973 coup d'état in Chile.
1972


Canada defeats the USSR in the eighth and final game of the ice hockey Summit Series.
1971


UK passes the Misuse of Drugs Act banning the medicinal use of cannabis.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom passes the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 banning the medicinal use of cannabis.
1970


Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser dies of a heart attack in Cairo. Anwar Sadat is named as Nasser's temporary successor, and will later become the permanent successor.
1962


The Paddington tram depot fire destroys 65 trams in Brisbane, Australia.
1961


A military coup in Damascus effectively ends the United Arab Republic, the union between Egypt and Syria.
1960


Mali and Senegal join the United Nations.
1958


France ratifies a new Constitution of France; the French Fifth Republic is then formed upon the formal adoption of the new constitution on October 4. Guinea rejects the new constitution, voting for independence instead.
1951


CBS makes the first color televisions available for sale to the general public, but the product is discontinued less than a month later.
1950


Indonesia joins the United Nations.
1944


Soviet Army troops liberate Klooga concentration camp in Klooga, Estonia.
1941


Major League Baseball: Ted Williams of the Boston Red Sox finishes the season with a batting average of .406. He is the latest major league player to have a batting average of .400 or better.
The Drama Uprising against the Bulgarian occupation in northern Greece begins.
1939


Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union agree on a division of Poland after their invasion during World War II.
Warsaw surrenders to Nazi Germany during World War II.
1928


The U.K. Parliament passes the Dangerous Drugs Act outlawing cannabis.
"When I woke up just after dawn on September 28, 1928, I certainly didn't plan to revolutionise all medicine by discovering the world's first antibiotic, or bacteria killer," Fleming would later say, "But I suppose that was exactly what I did.”

By 1927, Fleming had been investigating the properties of staphylococci. He was already well-known from his earlier work, and had developed a reputation as a brilliant researcher, but his laboratory was often untidy. On 3 September 1928, Fleming returned to his laboratory having spent August on holiday with his family. Before leaving, he had stacked all his cultures of staphylococci on a bench in a corner of his laboratory. On returning, Fleming noticed that one culture was contaminated with a fungus, and that the colonies of staphylococci immediately surrounding the fungus had been destroyed, whereas other staphylococci colonies farther away were normal, famously remarking "That's funny". Fleming showed the contaminated culture to his former assistant Merlin Price, who reminded him, "That's how you discovered lysozyme.” Fleming grew the mould in a pure culture and found that it produced a substance that killed a number of disease-causing bacteria. He identified the mould as being from the Penicillium genus, and, after some months of calling it "mould juice", named the substance it released penicillin on 7 March 1929. The laboratory in which Fleming discovered and tested penicillin is preserved as the Alexander Fleming Laboratory Museum in St. Mary's Hospital, Paddington.
1924


First round-the-world flight completed.
1919


Race riots begin in Omaha, Nebraska, US.
1918


World War I: The Fifth Battle of Ypres begins.
1912


The Ulster Covenant is signed by half a million Ulster Protestants in opposition to the Third Irish Home Rule Bill.
Corporal Frank S. Scott of the United States Army becomes the first enlisted man to die in an airplane crash. He and pilot Lt. Lewis C. Rockwell are killed in the crash of an Army Wright Model B at College Park, Maryland.
1907


Bhagat Singh one of the most influential revolutionaries of Indian independence movement was born in the Khatkar Kalan village near Banga in the Lyallpur district of Punjab.
1901


Philippine-American War: Filipino guerrillas kill more than forty American soldiers while losing 28 of their own, in a surprise attack in the town of Balangiga on Samar Island.
1892


The first night game for American football takes place in a contest between Wyoming Seminary and Mansfield State Normal.
1891


Club Atletico Peñarol is founded under the name of Central Uruguay Railway Cricket Club
1889


The first General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) defines the length of a meter as the distance between two lines on a standard bar of an alloy of platinum with ten percent iridium, measured at the melting point of ice.
1885


Riots break out in Montreal to protest against compulsory smallpox vaccination.
1871


Brazilian Parliament passes the Law of the Free Womb, granting freedom to all new children born to slaves, the first major step in the eradication of slavery in Brazil.
1868


Battle of Alcolea causes Queen Isabella II of Spain to flee to France.
1867


Toronto becomes the capital of Ontario.
The United States takes control of Midway Island.
1844


Oscar I of Sweden-Norway is crowned king of Sweden.
1791


France becomes the first country to emancipate its Jewish population.
1787


The newly completed United States Constitution is voted on by the U.S. Congress to be sent to the state legislatures for approval.
1781


American forces backed by a French fleet begin the siege of Yorktown, Virginia, during the American Revolutionary War.
1779


American Revolution: Samuel Huntington is elected President of the Continental Congress, succeeding John Jay.
1708


Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya.
1542


Navigator Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo of Portugal arrives at what is now San Diego, California, United States.
1538


Ottoman-Venetian War: The Ottoman Navy scores a decisive victory over a Holy League fleet in the Battle of Preveza.
1448


Christian I is crowned king of Denmark.
1322


Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor defeats Frederick I of Austria in the Battle of Mühldorf.
1238


Muslim Valencia surrenders to the besieging King James I of Aragon the Conqueror.
1106


The Battle of Tinchebray - Henry I of England defeats his brother, Robert Curthose.
1066


William the Conqueror invades England: the Norman Conquest begins.
William the Bastard (also known as William the Conqueror) invades England beginning the Norman conquest of England.
995


Members of Slavník's dynasty - Spytimír, Pobraslav, Pořej and Čáslav are murdered by Boleslaus's son, Boleslaus II the Pious.
935


Saint Wenceslas is murdered by his brother, Boleslaus I of Bohemia.
365


Roman usurper Procopius bribes two legions passing by Constantinople, and proclaims himself Roman emperor.
351


Battle of Mursa Major: the Roman Emperor Constantius II defeats the usurper Magnentius.
235


Pope Pontian resigns. He and Hippolytus, church leader of Rome, are exiled to the mines of Sardinia.
48


Pompey the Great is assassinated on orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt after landing in Egypt.
48 BC


Pompey the Great is assassinated on the orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt after landing in Egypt.